Dental implants usually consist of three components — the implant body, the abutment, and the restoration. The implant body is implanted into the jawbone, the abutment protrudes from the gum and supports the prosthetic tooth, and the restoration is the visible part of the tooth crown.
One-Piece Dental Implants
One-piece implants consist of a single workpiece whose abutment protrudes from the mucosa after implantation. There is no dividing line between the intrabony and the prosthetic implant area. These implants are mainly used for larger work in the posterior region, but single tooth gaps, also in the anterior region, can also be restored with one-piece implants.
Advantages of one-piece implants:One-piece implants are much more resistant to fracture and insertion costs are usually lower because there is no cost for an abutment. If one-piece implants are placed in a minimally invasive way, the stress on the patient caused by the operation is considerably less.
Disadvantages of one-piece implants:The prosthetic part, the abutment, protrudes into the oral cavity, so there is a risk of lateral loads which endanger the success of the implantation. This can be prevented by a suitable temporary restoration, e.g., by splinting with the adjacent teeth. Since the abutment is firmly attached to the implant, the dental crown that is to be anchored on the implant cannot always be optimally aligned.
Two-Piece Dental Implants
Two-piece implants are also called two-stage implants. The implant consists exclusively of an intrabony part, which is inserted into the jawbone. The prosthetic part, the implant head, is placed later after the implant has successfully grown into the jawbone.
Advantages of two-piece implants:Since no abutments protrude into the oral cavity with two-piece implants, lateral loads (lateral shear forces) are practically excluded. Different shapes and materials are available for the implant abutment (abutment) in different angles, so that the subsequent denture can be optimally fitted into the tooth row.
Disadvantages of tow-piece implants:With two-piece implants, there is a gap between the implant body and the abutment. Depending on the construction of the implant, bacteria can get into the interior of the implant through this gap and pose an increased risk of infection. Unlike the one-piece implant, two-piece implants may require two surgeries to fit the implant with the prosthesis, but this depends on the placement protocol.
Abutments for Two-Piece Implants
Premium implant systems, which are designed for all implantological indications, usually have a wide range of different abutments: as straight and angled versions, in different angulations (angles), and different materials, e.g., titanium or ceramic/zirconium dioxide.
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